• Whose Presence, Whose Absences? Decolonising Russian National Culture and History: Observations through the Prism of Religious Contact
    Vol. 13 No. 8

    Guest Editors: Jesko Schmoller and Knut-Martin Stünkel

    The still recent invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Armed Forces has generated a lively discussion about an imperial outlook prevalent in Russian society that for many years may not have been vocal and possibly therefore gone mostly unnoticed. The time has come, some scholars and activists argue, to critically question that outlook and attempt to decolonise Russia. This special issue is concerned with the formation of a new Russian national identity over the previous decades, where Slavic civilisation, Orthodox Christianity and imperial grandeur are combined in a narrative about the Russian nation. It directs attention to the absences produced by such a self-image: In a famously diverse and multi-ethnic country such as Russia, not everyone can identify with this image and some feel left out of the picture.

    Although ethnic and religious belonging are closely entangled in Russia, the authors who contribute to this special issue focus mainly on the issue of religion as one aspect of identity on the national and regional level, for social groups and for individuals. In situations of religious contact, communities assimilate, converge or seek distance from one another and, when observed over a longer period of time, undergo metamorphosis. And where one religious denomination may be especially visible in the built environment, in the public space and in the media—the Russian Orthodox Church in the case of Russia—, this visibility can actually hide the presence of other denominations. In reaction to the question “whose presence, whose absences?”, the texts in this special issue critically engage with dominant representations of Russian culture and history, and several of them also shed a light on those inadequately represented communities with their own heritage, interpretations of history and perceptions.

    Image credits: Photo by Jesko Schmoller (wall painting in the city centre of Ufa).

  • Interreligious Relations in Early Southeast Asia: Encountering Buddhists, Brahmins and Indigenous Religions
    Vol. 13 No. 7

    Guest Editors: Jessie Pons and Patrick Krüger

    Over the last two or three decades, scholarship on Southeast Asia has largely contributed to the reappraisal of the process of Indianisation of the region. Though not standardized and having changing meanings according to Indian and Western academic cultures, this paradigm can be broadly understood as the diffusion and adoption of Indian cultural values to Southeast Asia from the first few centuries following the turn of the Common Era onwards. Critical of this India-centric model, scholars have proposed alternative approaches to the study of interactions between South and Southeast Asia which have oscillated between that of externalist influence, that of the local or autonomous specificity or that which have focused on the circulatory dynamics of transfer of cultural, religious, diplomatic, and economic values through maritime trade routes across Asia.

    Against the framework of these second-order reflections, this edited volume investigates different levels of relationship between Hindu, Buddhist, and non-Indic religions during ancient and early medieval times. It examines issues related to the multi-directional transfer of mythologies, belief-systems, practices, and material culture between the Indian sub-continent and what is commonly referred to as Southeast Asia. In this respect, it aims at shedding further light on the agencies in the spread of religious concepts and material objects, the dialectics between their received, assigned, or reinterpreted meaning, and the modifications brought about by their adoptions and/or adaptations.

    This volume gathers articles that build upon papers presented at the workshop Interreligious Relations in Early Southeast Asia: Encountering Buddhists, Brahmins and Indigenous Religions which took place at CERES, on the 16th and 17th of January 2020.

    Image: Iain Sinclair, 2013.

  • Invoking a Strange God: Rituals of Power and Religious Contacts in the Late Antique Mediterranean World and Medieval Europe
    Vol. 13 No. 6

    Guest Editors: Alexandra Cuffel and Eduard Iricinschi

    The papers included in this ER issue represent the outcome of a two-day workshop, held on November 7–8, 2019, at Käte Hamburger Kolleg of Ruhr University Bochum, on the topic of "Invoking a Strange God: Rituals of Power and Religious Contacts in the Late Antique Mediterranean World and Medieval Europe." The workshop brought together scholars in the fields of late-antique and medieval magic and Kabbalah in the Mediterranean world and Western Asia to study the role of religious contacts in their historical contexts. The conference on "Invoking a Strange God" pursued a three-fold programmatic approach. First, its participants considered the composite nature of primary sources of ancient, late-antique, and medieval “magic” and Kabbalah as texts documenting the accumulations of practices and ideologies underlying rituals of power. As a result, the first approach uncovered paths of circulation and patches of accumulation of these documents. Secondly, the scholars discussed historical instances of late-antique and medieval magic and Kabbalah as instances of mutual influence, exchanges, and appropriations among various historical religious traditions. As such, this second approach encouraged the participants to explore the malleable role of “tradition” and “change” in the discourses associated with practices of ritual power and invocations of divine names. Thirdly, the scholars undertook analyses of the materiality associated with rituals of power in various ancient and medieval Jewish and Christian traditions. In doing this, the third programmatic approach highlighted the role of materiality in the transmission of occult religious traditions, such as magic and Kabbalah.

    Image credits: Hieronymus Bosch "The Conjurer," from Wikimedia Images 

  • Safavid and Mughal Empires in Contact: Intellectual and Religious Exchanges between Iran and India in the Early Modern Era
    Vol. 13 No. 5

    Guest Editors:  Reza Pourjavady and Kianoosh Rezania

    This special issue investigates the intellectual and religious contacts between Safavid Iran and Mughal India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Iran and North India witnessed fundamental cultural changes in the early modern period, which profoundly formed their new identity. The rulers of Iran at the time, the Safavids (1501–1722), proclaimed Shi’i Islam as the state religion; The Mughal emperors (1526–1858) fostered an environment in India where Islam, Hindu religions, Christianity and Zoroastrianism came more intensively in dialogue. Numerous syncretistic trends emerged from this entangled situation and the contacts affected the respective religions as well. Moderated Indian rulers invited, for example, the representatives of different religions to the court to dispute. They also supported translations of the Sanskrit religious texts into Persian. The open religious environment of Mughal India was for the Safavid intellectuals so attractive that many of them traveled or even migrated to India. Due to these migrations, scholastic teachings of Islamic theology started in major cities of India. Besides enhancing Mughal and Safavid intellectual thoughts, the interaction led to an emergence of religious thoughts in-between the two religious zones, as is the case of the new syncretistic philosophical and religious movement of Āẕar Kaivānīs. The volume covers several individual studies on topics related to the migration of Safavid scholars to the Mughal empire and its religious and intellectual outcomes.

    Image: Hasan Jahangir welcoming Shah Abbas (Wikimedia)


  • Exploring Words: The Impact of the Colonialization Period on the Development of a Religious Language
    Vol. 13 No. 4

    Guest Editors: Knut Martin Stünkel and Görge Hasselhoff

    The volume examines the development of religious language in a special kind of contact situation i.e., the specific influence of colonial encounters on the formation and development of religious language in both Europe and the colonies. It attempts to scrutinize if knowledge of non-European languages challenged and changed religious concepts and notions in the European language. Did the European religious language(s) become more sense-related as a result of the colonial encounter? What (new) role did the transcendence-immanence distinction play? What concepts in general were found suitable by European authors as tertia comparationis or connectabilities to non-European languages?

  • (CC Wikimedia): Manuscript is from late 17th-early 18th centuries, Iran. Now kept in Los Angeles. Documentation ID# MS 1398, folio 15r

    Jewish Encounters in the Persianate World from the Sassanians to the Safavids
    Vol. 13 No. 3

    Guest Editors: Zara Pogossian and Alexandra Cuffel

    From the Sasanian Empire to the Safavids, the vast territories either directly controlled by or within the sphere of influence of various Iranian dynasties, were host to numerous religious groups. They interacted on multiple levels and social settings, on the one hand and set boundaries, on the other. Evidence from the analysis of magical practices, concerns for purity, prayers for rain, and other rituals point to instances of interaction. The creation of authoritative religious texts or debates about Scripture may be read both as an effort to set clear delineations between communities, but also for what they reveal about their cross-fertilization. This Special Issue includes a broad spectrum of studies that focus on the Jewish communities in Iranian lands widely speaking, including west and central Asia, from Late Antiquity to the eighteenth century in order to better understand patterns of encounter between various denominations of Jews (Rabbanite, Karaite, and Isawiyya), and Jews with Zoroastrianism, Manichaeans, and various types of Christians and Muslims. The role of religious affiliation and competition in inter-communal dynamics when inhabiting the same urban spaces, in trading partnerships, ritual practice, popular literature, learned theological discourses and scriptural exegeses, foundation legends and magic, among others, are some of the most salient foci of articles brought together in this volume. Of particular interest is the exchanges between Jewish communities, ideas, and religious movements and those of other religious affiliations.

    Image: Manuscript from late 17th-early 18th centuries, Iran. Now kept in Los Angeles. Documentation ID# MS 1398, folio 15r. (Source:

  • Muslim Perspectives on Jewish-Christian Relations
    Vol. 13 No. 2

    Guest Editors: Barbara Roggema and Alexandra Cuffel

    How did Muslim thinkers perceive, imagine and depict Jewish-Christian interaction, whether it be in the past, in their contemporary world or in the eschatological future? Although there are numerous studies on Muslim views of Christianity, as well as on Muslim views of Judaism, there are no noteworthy ones, as yet, that deal with the question of whether and how Muslims authors (historians, exegetes, legal scholars, littérateurs) reflected on historical and imaginary relations between Jews and Christians. This collection seeks to fill this lacuna, at least in part.

    Already in the Qur’an there are allusions to Jewish-Christian tensions and polemical exchanges, which is not surprising considering the vehemence of Jewish-Christian confrontation in the sixth- and early seventh-century Middle East. In Q 2:113 Jews and Christians are described as accusing each other of basing themselves on nothing. This verse warns that God will judge between them at the day of the resurrection.  This passage serves to justify the Qur’an as a new Scripture that will settle ancient conflicts and ambiguities by re-establishing the untainted monotheism of Abraham. In other instances the Qur’an is more partial in the assessment of Jewish-Christian controversy, as emphasizing the human obligation to accept all Prophets. It takes a stand against the Jews for their rejection of Jesus, just as people are subsequently to be condemned for rejecting Muhammad’s prophethood. In this manner the Qur’an formed a starting point for the development of the Islamic ideas about the historical succession of prophets and the progress of revelation.

    Throughout the centuries Jewish and Christian communities remained present in the Islamic heartlands and Muslim authors observed social interaction and competition between them and wrote about this with interest and, at times, humor. They were interested in the dhimmis’ historiography and investigated the discrepancies between their views of the Biblical past. The well-known Muʿtazilī thinker  ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-Hamadhānī and the Ḥanbalī thinker Ibn Taymiyya, reflected on the question of how Christ’s religion related to that of the Jews, noting the tension between Christ’s perfection of Moses’ revelation  and what they saw as the gradual Christian deviation from the monotheistic ideal. Muslim legalists’ ideas about Jewish-Christian religious and social interactions with one another were influenced by how their own religious intellectual heritage portrayed these communities and formulated Islam’s superiority vis-à-vis either religion separately.  In early modern times, a new perspective emerges where Egyptian intellectuals viewed Jews and Christians as allies due to European Christian support for the budding Zionist movement.

    The papers in this volume address a unique topic in the study of interreligious encounters: the observations and critiques of a third party on the social and intellectual exchange between two competing communities. This first attempt to analyze a wide variety of relevant genres, such as tafsīr, historiography, adab, polemics, pamphlets and Aḥkām Ahl al-Dhimma, shows that although many different approaches intersect in these works, they all bear witness to the desire among Islamic thinkers to harmonize Islamic norms, ideals and realities with regard to Judaism and Christianity and Islam’s relationship to both.

    Image: The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. "Citadelle (vue du cimetière)." The New York Public Library Digital Collections. 1860 - 1929.

  • Vol. 13 No. 1 (2022)

    This is our continuous issue of Entangled Religions and therefore still work-in-progress. Individual Articles, Reviews, and other contributions will be added gradually. Be sure to check back regularly or follow us on Twitter to be notified for any updates on this issue.

    If you are interested in contributing to this issue or our journal in general, check out our Author Guidelines. We don't have specific deadlines, so authors are welcome to contact us anytime.

  • Photo by John Benitez on Unsplash.

    Religion and Pandemic: Shifts in Interpretations, Popular Lore, and Practices
    Vol. 12 No. 3

    Guest Editors: Alexander Agadjanian and Konrad Siekierski

    Religions worldwide have been strongly affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The very fact of the pandemic, its emotional perception, as well as its medical, social, and political implications, required instant reactions from religious institutions and individual believers. These reactions related to changes in rituals, daily practices, and forms of communication; they caused the emergence of new myths, phobias, and protective strategies, and generated theological interpretations as well as new ethical choices.

    In this special issue, the authors, using methods of various disciplines, address both intra-confessional and inter-religious dynamics with a special focus on interconnected, “entangled” responses to the crisis, in line with the focus of Entangled Religions.

    (C) Photo by John Benitez on Unsplash.


  • The Desert Origins of God: Yahweh's Emergence and Early History in the Southern Levant and Northern Arabia
    Vol. 12 No. 2

    Guest Editors: Juan Manuel Tebes and Christian Frevel

    This special issue publishes most of the contributions of a three-day workshop of the Käte Hamburger Kolleg "Dynamics in the History of Religions between Asia and Europe" held on July 2019 at the Center for Religious Studies, Ruhr University Bochum. It seeks to explore and contextualize the configuration of the varied desert cultic practices from the southern Levant and northern Arabia during the Late Bronze/Iron Ages that may have contributed to the emergence of the Yahwistic cult. By this it raises also crucial questions on the early history of the Israelite and Judean religions in the first millennium BCE. Recent archaeological excavations in the Negev, southern Transjordan and Hejaz and new interpretations of old epigraphic and iconographic evidence are rapidly changing the biblical-based paradigm of the interactions between the desert cults and the Iron Age Levantine religions. Cultural contacts and the entanglement of religious networks are paramount for the understanding of this early history. Recent archaeological, iconographic and epigraphic studies of the Southern Levant contribute to the question of the emergence and early development of a Yahwistic religion. The issue adopts an interdisciplinary approach, assessing textual, archaeological, as well as epigraphic and iconographic data.  
  • Vol. 12 No. 1 (2021)

    This is our continuous issue of Entangled Religions and therefore still work-in-progress. Individual Articles, Reviews and other contributions will be added gradually. Be sure to check back regularly or follow us on Facebook or Twitter to be notified for any updates on this issue.

    If you are interested in contributing to this issue or our journal in general, check out our Author Guidelines. We don't have specific deadlines, so authors are welcome to contact us anytime.

  • “Dynamics, Stability & Tradition: The Role of the Religions of Iranian Speakers in Central and Eastern Asia”
    Vol. 11 No. 6

    Guest Editor: Yukiyo Kasai

    Iranian speakers had their homeland in Central Asia, some of them are known as the dominating traders on the Silk Road up to China. Through their trade activities they came in contact with various religions—Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism and Christianity. Because of their religious diversity, they often played a major role as the cultural intermediaries in Central and Eastern Asia and the contact with them often triggered dynamic change for several ethnic groups. Iranian speakers were also impacted by others in their religious orientation.

    Since their activities covered wide geographical regions and periods, this special issue aims to offer a platform for discussion between scholars from Europe and Asia from various fields. The exchange of new sources will shed new light on Iranian speaker’s activities and their religious situation.

    This special issue is based on a workshop at Ruhr-University Bochum March 2019.

  • Sea of Encounters, Lands of Religions: the Indian Ocean and its Periphery
    Vol. 11 No. 5

    Special Issue Editor: Alexandra Cuffel

    Note: The contributions are being published successively between November 2020 and summer 2022. Please return then for the full spectrum of contributions.

  • Behaving Like Heathens. Polemical Comparisons and Pre-Modern Discourses of Religious Diversity from an Interdisciplinary Perspective
    Vol. 11 No. 4

    Guest Editors: Sita Steckel and Christina Brauner

    The special issue "Behaving Like Heathens. Polemical Comparisons and Pre-Modern Discourses of Religious Diversity from an Interdisciplinary Perspective," edited by Sita Steckel and Christina Brauner, takes a historical view on the ongoing debate about comparison and religion. Offering a cross-cultural perspective on pre-modern histories, it seeks to rehabilitate the full explanatory potential of 'polemical' comparisons: rather than 'disqualifying' such asymmetrical and pejorative comparisons from the study of comparative practices, we can understand them as important tools in the construction of cultural hierarchies. On this basis, the contributions to the issue thus explore how practices of comparing in polemical exchanges relate to the negotiation of intra- and inter-religious boundaries and to varying conceptualizations of “religion” and the “religious” itself. Bringing together contributions from Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic studies, within a broad temporal framework from Late Antiquity to the nineteenth century, it also contributes to the re-assessment of comparisons beyond Western modernity and seeks to link a historicization of comparisons with a reflective perspective on comparative methodology in our own disciplines. Most contributions go back to a conference held at Bielefeld University in 2018 (

    Note: The contributions are being published successively between October 2020 and autumn 2022. Please return then for the full spectrum of contributions.

    Image: De duivel beschiet de katholieke kerk met ongeloof, anoniem, 1550–1599. Licence: CC 0 Universal. 

  • Religion, Media, and Materiality
    Vol. 11 No. 3

    Guest Editors: Giulia Evolvi and Jessie Pons

    Religious practice necessarily involves the use of media to bridge the gap between immanence and transcendence. Scholarship has been increasingly interested in the relationship between religion and media and how material and immaterial objects become entangled in religious belief-systems and practices. In this respect, the issue of authority emerges as paramount. The special issue aims at exploring the interplay of authority, religion, and media. It includes scholars from different disciplines–religious studies, media studies, art history, philology–presenting a wide range of case studies from different geographical and historical contexts, focusing both on authority as discussed within specific religious communities and as negotiated between different religious groups. 

  • Formative Exchanges between the Sasanid Empire and Late Antique Rome: Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Christianity in Contact
    Vol. 11 No. 2

    Guest Editors: Eduard Iricinschi and Kianoosh Rezania

    The special issue “Formative Exchanges between the Sasanid Empire and Late Antique Rome: Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Christianity in Contact”, edited by Kianoosh Rezania and Eduard Iricinschi, publishes the contributions of a two-days workshop of the Käte Hamburger Kolleg "Dynamics in the History of Religions between Asia and Europe" hold on first and second of June 2017 at the Center for Religious Studies, Ruhr University Bochum. It explores formative dynamics of contacts, interactions, and exchanges that took place in the Sasanian and Roman Empires between Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Christianity at multiple levels. The contributions investigate the cognitive, ritual, and material scope of religions represented as “minorities” within larger ethnic and ideological landscapes, such as Christians and Manichaeans in the Persian Empire, or Manichaeans in the Roman Empire. Also, they enquire into how the subsequent reactions from the political, ethnic, and religious “majority” of the Persian and Roman Empires led not only to various manners of accommodation or rejection of religious minorities by the religious establishment, but also to the transformation of these majorities themselves as a result of religious contacts, influences, and borrowings.

  • Vol. 11 No. 1 (2020)

    This is our continuous issue of Entangled Religions and therefore still work-in-progress. Individual Articles, Reviews and other contributions will be added gradually. Be sure to check back regularly or follow us on Facebook or Twitter to be notified for any updates on this issue.

    If you are interested in contributing to this issue or our journal in general, check out our Author Guidelines. We don't have specific deadlines, so authors are welcome to contact us anytime.

  • Senses, Religion and Religious Encounter
    Vol. 10

    Guest Editors: Alexandra Cuffel, Licia Di Giacinto, Volkhard Krech

    This special issue is the outcome of the conference "Religion and the Senses", held at the Käte Hamburger Kolleg in September 2016.

    After having been disregarded in favour of doctrines and dogmas for a long time, the sensory dimension of religions has recently attracted a large scholarly attention in religious studies. In tune with the surrounding academic landscape, the Käte Hamburger Kolleg "Dynamics in the History of Religions between Asia and Europe" has devoted the academic year 2015-2016 to the scrutiny of the role of the theme "senses" from the perspective of interreligious, intrareligious and intersocietal contact. The conference summarized the main results of this work. 

  • The Changing Landscapes of Cross-Faith Places and Practices
    Vol. 9 (2019)

    Guest Editor: Manfred Sing

    The present special issue of Entangled Religions has emerged from a conference about “Shared Sacred Places and Multi-Religious Space” that took place at the Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz in September 2016. As the title of the conference indicates, a main interest was to re-think the relation between place and space and between different religions. The conference took place in the framework of the IEG focus topic “Europe from the Margins,” which also included a lecture series on processes of marginalization and exclusion with regard to social and religious minorities within and beyond Europe. This background explains the range of topics in this special issue to a certain degree, because the conference had the aim to de-centre established notions of Europe and religion and understand them in their multi-dimensionality. While cross-faith practices are a worldwide phenomenon, the main geographical focus of the following articles is on southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean with their spatial extensions to Asia. Proceeding from here, the contributions in this volume understand multi-faith practices as embedded in local arrangements as well as in larger multi-religious landscapes, thus taking account of the interconnection between the local and the global and paying attention to the micro and macro levels of analysis.

  • Vol. 8 (2019)

    In this volume you will find no less than 11 articles and one book review. The articles cover a wide range of topics, such as traditions, religious identities, tolerance, memory and more.

    Traditions can be dealt with in different ways, religious groups, and times: Islamic traditions can be understood as bodies of ideas or bodies of texts; the ‘Tangut ideology’ or ‘Tangut tradition’, although limited in its reconstruction, consists of multiple facets, one of which is examined here; traditions and roles of foundational religious texts change among Jews and Muslims in present-day London; how Buddhist tradition in Russian Trans-Baikal is constructed; the analysis of traditions of power and virtue and their dynamics in South Asia.

    Other contributions deal with specific events such as religious conversion during the refugee crisis in Germany or dynamics and stability in the expansion of the Vineyard movement.

  • Between the Altar and the Pulpit: The (New?) Materiality of the Spiritual
    Vol. 7 (2018)

    Guest Editors: Raingard Esser and Andrea Strübind

    The special issue is based on papers presented at the international conference “Zwischen Kanzel und Altar. Die (neue) Materialität des Spirituellen” held at the Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden in April 2016. Continuity and change in church interiors were key concepts addressed at the conference. The studies presented here analyse the impact of confessional change on church interiors and intentionally move away from the cathedrals and parish churches in the political and religious centres of early modern Europe.

  • Historical Engagements and Interreligious Encounters - Jews and Christians in Premodern and Early Modern Asia and Africa
    Vol. 6 (2018)

    Guest Editors: Alexandra Cuffel and Ophira Gamliel

    The essays in this special issue are based on the proceedings of the workshop Eastern Jews and Christians in Interaction and Exchange in the Islamic World and Beyond: A Comparative View held in Jerusalem and Raʿanana in June 2016. Accordingly, the essays address interreligious encounters in the Islamic world and beyond, examining social and religious attitudes towards religious Others in a wide range of disciplinary approaches. What binds these essays together is an attempt to shed light on a little-known history of Jewish-Christian relations in premodern Asia and Africa, a subject that stands at the heart of the research project Jews and Christians in the East: Strategies and Interactions between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.

  • Vol. 5 (2018)

    In this full packed volume, we offer you seven diverse articles. Dealing with the topic of religious encounters and exchange, Stephen Berkwitz focuses on Asian Buddhists and European Christians in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and Japan from the sixteenth century onwards, while Faris Zwirahn examines Christian-Muslim relations and religious dialogue in the early fourteenth century.

    Thomas Jurcyk and Christoph Anderl study the use and role of images and text in an Armenian letter from the seventeenth century and through Buddhist “Auspicious Statues” during the later Tang and Five Dynasties period.

    Other contributions of this volume investigate inter-religious encounters in modern societies: Evangelical encounters with Islam in Britain (Greg Smith), Buddhism in Russia’s politics and education in Buryatia (Ivan Sablin) and Christian Churches and Chapels in Japan (Beate Löffler).

  • Vol. 4 (2017)

    Along with five reviews of books on various subjects in the religious studies, this volume provides you with essays by Mattias Brand, Björn Bentlage and Gerold Necker.

    These deal with archaeological findings in the Dakhleh Oasis in the Egyptian desert and the insights into the local situation of Egyptian religion, Christianity, and Manichaeism in late antiquity, as well as the development of an entanglement perspective on piety in the Ayyubid age.

  • Vol. 3 (2016)

    The articles in this issue deal with various subjects such as pluralistic societies and intercultural translation as well as religious life-writing and autobiographies.

    Furthermore the four contributions to our miscellaneous section include essays on the concept of religious competition, Vedic religion, the religious practice of Bede Griffith in California and more.

    Our book review section contains no less than 26 reviews of the newest publications by established scholars.

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